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1. Acadian Expulsion
During the Seven Years War, more than 14,000 Acadians were forcibly expelled from their homeland and dispersed throughout the British colonies. Thousands died of illness and starvation during deportation.

2. Act of Supremacy
The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared King Henry VIII supreme head of the Church of England.

3. Act of Union of 1841
The Act of Union of 1841 united Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada) under a single government. Called the United Province of Canada, this governmental structure lasted until Confederation in 1867.

4. American Bible Society Founded

5. American Civil War

6. American War of Independence

1 record(s) found
7. Anti-Semitic Pogroms in Russia and Jewish Refugees in Ontario
From 1881-84 and 1903-06, a series of anti-semitic pogroms (riots) swept through Russia and eastern Europe, resulting in several waves of mass Jewish emigration to Canada. With the murder of Tsar Alexander II (1818-81) of Russia, rumours of a Jewish assassin heightened existing tensions between Jews and Orthodox Christians. The first riot occurred in 1881 at Elisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad, Ukraine), and pogroms soon erupted in urban centres across Imperial Russia. Thousands of Jewish businesses were vandalized, homes destroyed and Jews themselves injured. The pogroms and apparent indifference of the Russian authorities resulted in a wave of Jewish emigration to North America in the 1880s. Jewish emigration also increased as a result of the May Laws (1882), a series of Russian restrictions on Jewish settlement, employment and education. Arriving in established Jewish communities in Montreal, Toronto and Hamilton, Jewish refugees gathered to form new synagogues. In Toronto, the Goel Tzedec congregation was established by Lithuanians in 1883, transplanting their Orthodox Jewish traditions. A number of Jewish immigrants travelled further west to the Prairies, encouraged to settle and farm by the Canadian government. A second wave of pogroms in Russia broke out in 1903 at Chisinau (now Kishinev, Moldova). The level of violence increased dramatically, fuelling a new wave of mass Jewish emigration. From 1901-11, the number of Jews in Canada rose from 16,717 to 75,838. During this decade, the number of Jewish social service organizations across Ontario grew to meet the needs of these new immigrants. The massive influx of Russian and eastern European Jews to Canada ultimately spread across Ontario, as Jewish populations were established in smaller towns, and Jewish communities in the province became increasingly diversified.

8. Battle of Culloden

9. Battle of the Plains of Abraham

10. Bismarck's Kulturkampf
The term kulturkampf (culture struggle) refers to Otto von Bismarck’s imposition of state controls on Roman Catholic activity in the newly created German Empire. Restrictive policies ensured that clergy who discussed politics from the pulpit faced imprisonment, religious teachers were forbidden to hold public office, and some Catholic orders – such as Jesuits – were banned from operating in Germany. Subsequently, thousands of Catholic priests and laypeople were imprisoned or forced into exile and many monasteries and convents were closed.